Fiber Optic cable consists of a number of glass threads capable of transmitting data modulated onto light waves. Initially, fiber optic was used as the main backbone haul or connecting two or more networks. There were many factors behind rare or less usage of fiber optic cables in the networks mainly because of higher cost and incompatibility issues. But with the innovation in technology and with the advent of high bandwidth greedy applications, fiber optic cable is now quiet cost-effective to produce and to install as well. Fiber optic is now commonly being used in data centers and even to connect smaller networks within the building.
There are mainly two types of Fiber optic cables. Multi-mode and Single mode fiber .
Multi-mode fiber has a much larger core diameter, typically 50-100 micrometers much larger than the wavelength of the light carried in it. Because of the large core and also the possibility of large numerical aperture, multi-mode fiber has higher "light-gathering" capacity than single-mode fiber. In practical terms, the larger core size simplifies connections and also allows the use of lower-cost electronics such as LEDs which operate at the 850 nm and 1300 nm wavelength. While single-mode require more expensive laser sources.
Single Mode fiber exist for wavelengths ranging from 320 to 2100 nm—ultraviolet to short-wavelength infrared. However, compared to single-mode fibers, the multi-mode fibers can carry signal up to less distance than single mode do. Because multi-mode fiber has a larger core-size than single-mode fiber, it supports more than one propagation mode; hence it is limited by modal dispersion, while single mode is not.
Jacket color is sometimes used to distinguish multi-mode cables from single-mode ones. The standard TIA-598C recommends, for non-military applications, the use of a yellow jacket for single-mode fiber, and orange or aqua for multi-mode fiber, depending on type. Some vendors use violet to distinguish higher performance OM4 communications fiber from other types.
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